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However, the latter definition has begun to blur as it is found that some secreted substances act at a distance (classical endocrines), close to the cells that secrete them (paracrines), or directly on the cell that secreted them (autocrines).Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), which behaves as an endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine, provides a prime example of this difficulty.Nicholas Lorenzo, MD, MHA, CPE Founding Editor-in-Chief, e Medicine Neurology; Founder and CEO/CMO, PHLT Consultants; Chief Medical Officer, Me MD Inc Nicholas Lorenzo, MD, MHA, CPE is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Association for Physician Leadership, American Academy of Neurology Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.Francisco Talavera, Pharm D, Ph D Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. Helmi L Lutsep, MD Professor and Vice Chair, Department of Neurology, Oregon Health and Science University School of Medicine; Associate Director, OHSU Stroke Center Helmi L Lutsep, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology, American Stroke Association Disclosure: Medscape Neurology Editorial Advisory Board for: Stroke Adjudication Committee, CREST2; Executive Committee for the NINDS-funded DEFUSE3 Trial; Physician Advisory Board for Coherex Medical; Stroke Advisory Group for Re Walk Robotics, Inc.
We have derived a clonal Chinese hamster ovary cell line that secretes significant quantities of active alpha-AE.
Tissues capable of responding to endocrines have 2 properties in common: they posses a receptor having very high affinity for hormone, and the receptor is coupled to a process that regulates metabolism of the target cells.
Receptors for most amino acid-derived hormones and all peptide hormones are located on the plasma membrane.
Plasma carrier proteins exist for all classes of endocrine hormones.
Carrier proteins for peptide hormones prevent hormone destruction by plasma proteases.
Activation of these receptors by hormones (the first messenger) leads to the intracellular production of a second messenger, such as c AMP, which is responsible for initiating the intracellular biological response.